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Greenhouse Soils and Soilless Culture - Soils and Soil Supplements - Lecture Slides - Document's extract

Slides, Biology

Subject
Biology
Typology
Slides
University
These are the lecture slides of Soil Supplements. Key important points are: Greenhouse Soils and Soilless Culture, Materials Used For Rooting Media, Formulating, Pasteurizing Rooting Media, Methods of Watering, Timing, Fertilizers, Amendments Common, Greenhouse Cultures, Horticulture

Unit 17: Greenhouse Soils & Soilless Culture Docsity.com Objectives • • • • • Challenges & rewards of greenhouse plants Materials used for rooting media Formulating & pasteurizing rooting media Timing & methods of watering Fertilizers & amendments common in greenhouse cultures Docsity.com Introduction • Horticulture vastly growing industry • Great reliance on container-growth plants • Ability to start/grow plants in favorable conditions • Match plant preferences to potting media • Greater ability to manipulate climate, fertility, water etc. Docsity.com Root Media  Soilless culture can yield much higher per acre than soil culture –not realistic  Expensive  Difficult to manage  More consistent aeration, water retention     Stable organic matter or low C:N Water retention w/ adequate aeration Moderate/high CEC Suitable pH Docsity.com  Important Properties of Root Media Root Media • Stable organic matter – Moderately decomposed – don’t want it to shrink too much decreasing aeration • Greenhouse media tends has little natural fertility, needs ability to retain nutrients • Components of Root Media Mixes – Peat moss • Decompose slowly • High water-holding capacity • Can be acidic Docsity.com Root Media – Bark • Can replace peat moss • Less expensive • Should be composted – Sawdust, straw, manures • Sawdust & straw should be composted 1-2 mos. • Manures – Used little due to ammonium toxicity – Can be good in certain situations Docsity.com Root Media ▪ Vermiculite ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Silicate material High water holding capacity Great aeration High CEC, w/ some K, Ca, Mg ▪ Sand ▪ Best drainage & aeration ▪ No CEC or nutrient availability ▪ May work for starting plants ▪ Heated volcanic rock ▪ Sterile & inert ▪ Good substitute for sand ▪ Perlite Docsity.com Root Media Mixes  Soil-Based Root Media  1/3 sand, 1/3 peat moss, 1/3 soil  Keep clay

content low  Can make at home/lab w/ ability to sterilize soil  Materials to use ▪ Vermiculite, organic matter, sand, perlite, sphagnum peat moss ▪ Can mix yourself, or buy premixed  Soilless Root Media  Pay close attention to fertility management Docsity.com Pasteurization of Media  Pasteurization controls  Steam pasteurization  Weed seeds, pathogens, insects, nematodes  Most used  Pump steam through soil mixture to kill most pathogens  Cheaper  Must allow to aerate after treatment  Chemicals are nasty to handle Docsity.com  Chemical pasteurization Pasteurization of Media – Methyl bromide • Severely injurious to humans • Can be damaging to some plants – Chloropicrin (tear gas) • Can’t use where plants are growing Docsity.com Watering • Incorrect watering most frequent cause of reduced crop quality or failure • Watering Guides – Use well drained rooting medium – Wet entire root media w/ each watering (till it drips) • Leaching can then remove excess soluble salts • All root area is wet – Wet before dry stress occurs Docsity.com Watering  Watering Systems  Hand ▪ Frequency often questionable ▪ Quantity inconsistent ▪ Plant damage  Automated ▪ Sprinklers, drip, microirrigation, water tables & capillary action ▪ More consistent timing, and amount ▪ Must have good equipment, proper air flow, humidity control Docsity.com Fertilizing • Plant Nutrients – Vary w/ rooting media & crop – May need to pay close attention to micronutrients • May are available as mixtures or can be incorporated into irrigation • Slow-Release Fertilizers – Release over first 3-4 mos • Some may be 6-15 mos Docsity.com Soil & Tissue Testing • Many greenhouse production problems related to soil fertility • Can sample root media (every 3 mos) • Tissue sampling can be done to troubleshoot a problem – May be critical in large greenhouse production operations w/ high value

crops Docsity.com Hydroponics: Solution Culture • All nutrients must be supplied in solution – Can control fertility very specifically – Takes specific equipment for metering • Plant support – Fixed above, or floating – Keep aeration in water, or w/ wool, perlite, sand • Used commonly in research on roots to keep soil out of way Docsity.com Hydroponics: Solution Culture • Root Aeration & Darkness – Bubble air – Baffles in water flow – Keep root system in dark • Inhibits algae growth Docsity.com Assignment Docsity.com

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