"The goal of Unit 11 of The Physics Classroom Tutorial is to develop an understanding of the nature, properties, behavior, and mathematics of sound and to apply this understanding to the analysis of music and musical instruments. Thus far in this unit, applications of sound wave principles have been made towards a discussion of beats, musical intervals, concert hall acoustics, the distinctions between noise and music, and sound production by musical instruments. In Lesson 5, the focus will be upon the application of mathematical relationships and standing wave concepts to musical instruments. Three general categories of instruments will be investigated: instruments with vibrating strings (which would include guitar strings, violin strings, and piano strings), open-end air column instruments (which would include the brass instruments such as the trombone and woodwinds such as the flute and the recorder), and closed-end air column instruments (which would include some organ pipe and the bottles of a pop bottle orchestra). A fourth category - vibrating mechanical systems (which includes all the percussion instruments) - will not be discussed. These instrument categories may be unusual to some; they are based upon the commonalities among their standing wave patterns and the mathematical relationships between the frequencies that the instruments produce. "